L' Homme glial
Author: Yves Agid, Pierre Magistretti
Publisher: Odile Jacob
Ce livre renouvelle profondément ce que l’on sait sur le fonctionnement du cerveau. Les cellules gliales ont non seulement certaines des propriétés des neurones, mais elles ont la capacité d’intégrer les messages apportés à partir de l’environnement pour produire un comportement. C’est dire combien elles sont importantes à considérer pour expliquer nos mouvements, nos émotions, nos pensées et combien elles sont des cibles thérapeutiques potentielles pour lutter contre les maladies du cerveau. Conçu par deux scientifiques-médecins, l’un grand connaisseur du métabolisme cérébral et de la biologie des cellules gliales – Pierre Magistretti –, l’autre spécialiste de la prise en charge des maladies du système nerveux et de la recherche sur les maladies neurodégénératives – Yves Agid –, cet ouvrage fourmille d’exemples ; il montre le rôle décisif des cellules gliales dans le fonctionnement du cerveau de l’homme et, aussi, dans les pathologies neurologiques et psychiatriques. Une révolution dans la compréhension du cerveau, en même temps qu’une immense source d’espoir dans le traitement des maladies neuropsychiatriques. Yves Agid est professeur émérite de neurologie et de biologie cellulaire à l’université Paris-VI. Membre de l’Académie des sciences, membre fondateur de l’Institut du cerveau et de la moelle épinière (ICM), il est spécialiste de la recherche clinique et biologique sur les maladies neurodégénératives. Pierre Magistretti, médecin et neuroscientifique, est professeur à l’École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), à l’Université de Lausanne et à la King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). Il est dans le monde l’un des pionniers dans la recherche sur la glie. Avec François Ansermet, ils ont publié À chacun son cerveau (2004) et Les Énigmes du plaisir (2010) ; ils ont aussi dirigé le collectif Neurosciences et psychanalyse (2010).
Author: Jean - Pierre Multedo
Publisher: BoD - Books on Demand
La mésothérapie, définie à l'origine par son fondateur, le docteur Michel Pistor, est une technique thérapeutique qui consiste en des injections intradermiques de quelques gouttes d'un mélange médicamenteux préalablement dilué. Ces injections sont faites au plus près de la région malade. "Peu, rarement, mais au bon endroit" disait Michel Pistor qui ajoutait avec modestie : "je ne sais pas comment ça marche, mais ça marche". Ses disciples se sont efforcés de répondre à la question du mécanisme d'action de cette méthode de soins étonnement efficace, particulièrement dans le traitement de la douleur. Chacun a émis sa propre théorie. Celle de l'auteur, le docteur Multedo, a été une théorie micro circulatoire, qui fut l'objet d'un premier ouvrage publié en 1985 : "Mésothérapie, la troisième circulation". La peau, lieu privilégié des méso injections, est très riche en éléments micro circulatoires et c'est à partir de là que les produits injectés doivent trouver un chemin, le plus court possible, afin d'atteindre leur cible sous-jacente. Ce chemin, cette "voie secrète", certains l'ont imaginée et même décrite de façon précise sans jamais pouvoir objectiver sa présence. D'autres ont même nié son existence. Et voilà que les dernières technologies d'examen anatomiques et histologiques viennent de révéler, de manière irréfutable, la présence d'une circulation interstitielle et, par la même, conforter l'hypothèse du mode d'action micro circulatoire de la mésothérapie.
Author: Francis Schiller
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
This elegant and comprehensive scientific biography recounts the life of Paul Broca, one of the world's most inventive and prolific scientists, whose work touched not only the fields of surgery, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and the neuropathology of speech, but statistics, hypnosis, blood transfusion, and the grounding of the French school of anthropology, as well. Although Broca is known primarily for providing the working basis for all future cerebral localization (he was the first to identify "Broca's area" --a small patch on the convoluted surface of the brain--as the central organ for speech), this portrait of Broca also describes his fundamental role in the establishment of modern scientific "laboratory" medicine, and his broad capacity and appetite for science as a whole. His enduring curiosity and insistent pursuit of truth led him through an exciting course of study, which often placed him philosophically in the position of utilizing doubt as his strongest investigative impetus. The author, Francis Schiller, --himself a neurologist-- underscores Broca's vast contributions to both practical and moral science with keen insights and scholarly acumen. Historians of science, neuroscientists, and general readers alike will enjoy this enlightening and important biography.
The Biology of Emotions
Author: Jean Didier Vincent
This volume highlights new avenues of research in the language sciences, and particularly, in the neurobiology of language. The term “language-ready brain” stresses, on the one hand, the importance of a brain-based description of our species’ linguistic capacity, and, on the other, the need to appreciate the crucial role culture plays in shaping the linguistic systems children acquire and adults use. For this reason, the focus is not put on language per se, but on our learning biases and cognitive pre-dispositions toward language. Both brain and culture are considered at two crucial levels of inquiry: phylogeny and ontogeny. In a fast-growing field like the language sciences and specifically, language evolution studies, this book has tried to capture several of the most exciting topics explored currently, sowing seeds for future investigations.
Author: Hugues Duffau
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The goal of this book is to make a link between fundamental research in the field of cognitive neurosciences, which now benefits from a better knowledge of the neural foundations of cerebral processing, and its clinical application, especially in neurosurgery – itself able to provide new insights into brain organization. The anatomical bases are presented, advances and limitations of the different methods of functional cerebral mapping are discussed, updated models of sensorimotor, visuospatial, language, memory, emotional, and executive functions are explained in detail. In the light of these data, new strategies of surgical management of cerebral lesions are proposed, with an optimization of the benefit–risk ratio of surgery. Finally, perspectives about brain connectivity and plasticity are discussed on the basis of translational studies involving serial functional neuroimaging, intraoperative cortico-subcortical electrical mapping, and biomathematical modeling of interactions between parallel distributed neural networks.
For the first time in history, scholars working on language and culture from within an evolutionary epistemological framework, and thereby emphasizing complementary or deviating theories of the Modern Synthesis, were brought together. Of course there have been excellent conferences on Evolutionary Epistemology in the past, as well as numerous conferences on the topics of Language and Culture. However, until now these disciplines had not been brought together into one all-encompassing conference. Moreover, previously there never had been such stress on alternative and complementary theories of the Modern Synthesis. Today we know that natural selection and evolution are far from synonymous and that they do not explain isomorphic phenomena in the world. ‘Taking Darwin seriously’ is the way to go, but today the time has come to take alternative and complementary theories that developed after the Modern Synthesis, equally seriously, and, furthermore, to examine how language and culture can merit from these diverse disciplines. As this volume will make clear, a specific inter- and transdisciplinary approach is one of the next crucial steps that needs to be taken, if we ever want to unravel the secrets of phenomena such as language and culture.
Threads and Traces
Author: Carlo Ginzburg
Publisher: Univ of California Press
"This book is a translation of historian Carlo Ginzburgʼs latest collection of essays. Through the detective work of uncovering a wide variety of stories or microhistories from fragments, Ginzburg takes on the bigger questions: How do we draw the line between truth and fiction? What is the relationship between history and memory? Stories range from medieval Europe, the inquisitional trial of a witch, seventeenth-century antiquarianism, and twentieth-century historians."--Provided by publisher.
What Makes Us Think?
Author: Jean-Pierre Changeux, Paul Ricoeur
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Will understanding our brains help us to know our minds? Or is there an unbridgeable distance between the work of neuroscience and the workings of human consciousness? In a remarkable exchange between neuroscientist Jean-Pierre Changeux and philosopher Paul Ricoeur, this book explores the vexed territory between these divergent approaches--and comes to a deeper, more complex perspective on human nature. Ranging across diverse traditions, from phrenology to PET scans and from Spinoza to Charles Taylor, What Makes Us Think? revolves around a central issue: the relation between the facts (or "what is") of science and the prescriptions (or "what ought to be") of ethics. Changeux and Ricoeur ask: Will neuroscientific knowledge influence our moral conduct? Is a naturally based ethics possible? Pursuing these questions, they attack key topics at the intersection of philosophy and neuroscience: What are the relations between brain states and psychological experience? Between language and truth? Memory and culture? Behavior and action? What is a mental representation? How does a sign relate to what it signifies? How might subjective experience be constructed rather than discovered? And can biological or cultural evolution be considered progressive? Throughout, Changeux and Ricoeur provide unprecedented insight into what neuroscience can--and cannot--tell us about the nature of human experience. Changeux and Ricoeur bring an unusual depth of engagement and breadth of knowledge to each other's subject. In doing so, they make two often hostile disciplines speak to one another in surprising and instructive ways--and speak with all the subtlety and passion of conversation at its very best.
Author: Alain Berthoz
Publisher: Yale University Press
In this book a noted physiologist and neuroscientist introduces the concept of simplexity, the set of solutions living organisms find that enable them to deal with information and situations, while taking into account past experiences and anticipating future ones. Such solutions are new ways of addressing problems so that actions may be taken more quickly, more elegantly, and more efficiently. In a sense, the history of living organisms may be summed up by their remarkable ability to find solutions that avoid the world's complexity by imposing on it their own rules and functions. Evolution has resolved the problem of complexity not by simplifying but by finding solutions whose processes—though they can sometimes be complex—allow us to act in the midst of complexity and of uncertainty. Nature can inspire us by making us realize that simplification is never simple and requires instead that we choose, refuse, connect, and imagine, in order to act in the best possible manner. Such solutions are already being applied in design and engineering and are significant in biology, medicine, economics, and the behavioral sciences.
The Symbiotic Man
Author: Joël de Rosnay
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies
Within the past four decades a powerful scientific methodology has emerged that promises to dramatically recast our concept of nature and mankind's place in it. Unlike the traditional analytical approach which breaks nature down into smaller and smaller constituent parts, chaos theory, the theory of self-organization, and other so-called sciences of complexity, explore dynamic systems in their totalities, so as to lay bare the great constants governing their emergence, organization, and evolution. Using the tools of complexity, researchers recently have made breakthroughs in the understanding of such divers phenomena as weather systems, economies, and even the most daunting scientific mystery of all, the mind as an emergent property of the brain's dense neuronal mazes.
There are numerous books on cellular and molecular protocols for general use in cell biology but very few are exclusively devoted to neurobiology. This book fills this gap and explains in a clear and consistent manner, some of the more commonly used protocols in neuroscience research. Each chapter is written by either the person who invented the procedure or an expert in the field. The format is uniform: "Overview," "Background," "Protocols," and "results and discussion." Each protocol begins with the principle of the technique, studies in cell culture, materials and reagents, and, lastly, step-by-step outline of the procedure itself. This highly practical book is also well illustrated (with 17 four color plates) to make the concepts and procedures easy to understand and perform.
With the huge number of studies on nutrition and cancer available, it's impossible for a person to sort through them all to come up with practical recommendations. Now, Dr. David Khayat, a world-renowned oncologist, has done that hard work for you. In this international bestseller, Dr. Khayat provides easy-to-follow—and often surprising—guidelines on what are now known to be the foods most likely to reduce the risk of cancer. For those of a scientific bent, he explains what cancer is and how it develops. Bringing together his own research with that of other major cancer specialists, he breaks down what the studies mean, which ones provide the most solid evidence, and how to use their results in your and your family’s diet. Structured by the major food groups—as well as supplements, beverages, and exercise—The Anticancer Diet may surprise you by not disparaging red meat but alerting you to find out the source of your fish and suggesting sole over salmon. While highly recommending commercial pomegranate juice, it cautions people with fair hair and eyes against drinking orange juice. What stage of life a person is at will also affect what they should consume. Pregnant women, older women, men, and children may process foods differently. With numerous easy-to-read charts and tables along with a comprehensive food list at the back of the book, this accessible, user-friendly guide helps readers realize the power in their everyday choices.
Author: Charles P. Warlow, Jan van Gijn, Martin S. Dennis, Joanna M. Wardlaw, John M. Bamford, Graeme J. Hankey, Peter A. G. Sandercock, Gabriel Rinkel, Peter Langhorne, Cathie Sudlow, Peter Rothwell
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Completely updated edition, written by a close-knit author team Presents a unique approach to stroke - integrated clinical management that weaves together causation, presentation, diagnosis, management and rehabilitation Includes increased coverage of the statins due to clearer evidence of their effectiveness in preventing stroke Features important new evidence on the preventive effect of lowering blood pressure Contains a completely revised section on imaging Covers new advances in interventional radiology