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Linked Data

Linked Data

Author: Tom Heath, Christian Bizer
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1608454304
Pages: 122
Year: 2011
The World Wide Web has enabled the creation of a global information space comprising linked documents. As the Web becomes ever more enmeshed with our daily lives, there is a growing desire for direct access to raw data not currently available on the Web or bound up in hypertext documents. Linked Data provides a publishing paradigm in which not only documents, but also data, can be a first class citizen of the Web, thereby enabling the extension of the Web with a global data space based on open standards - the Web of Data. In this Synthesis lecture we provide readers with a detailed technical introduction to Linked Data. We begin by outlining the basic principles of Linked Data, including coverage of relevant aspects of Web architecture. The remainder of the text is based around two main themes - the publication and consumption of Linked Data. Drawing on a practical Linked Data scenario, we provide guidance and best practices on: architectural approaches to publishing Linked Data; choosing URIs and vocabularies to identify and describe resources; deciding what data to return in a description of a resource on the Web; methods and frameworks for automated linking of data sets; and testing and debugging approaches for Linked Data deployments. We give an overview of existing Linked Data applications and then examine the architectures that are used to consume Linked Data from the Web, alongside existing tools and frameworks that enable these. Readers can expect to gain a rich technical understanding of Linked Data fundamentals, as the basis for application development, research or further study. Table of Contents: List of Figures / Introduction / Principles of Linked Data / The Web of Data / Linked Data Design Considerations / Recipes for Publishing Linked Data / Consuming Linked Data / Summary and Outlook
Linked Data

Linked Data

Author: Tom Heath, Christian Bizer
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1608454312
Pages: 136
Year: 2011-02-02
The World Wide Web has enabled the creation of a global information space comprising linked documents. As the Web becomes ever more enmeshed with our daily lives, there is a growing desire for direct access to raw data not currently available on the Web or bound up in hypertext documents. Linked Data provides a publishing paradigm in which not only documents, but also data, can be a first class citizen of the Web, thereby enabling the extension of the Web with a global data space based on open standards - the Web of Data. In this Synthesis lecture we provide readers with a detailed technical introduction to Linked Data. We begin by outlining the basic principles of Linked Data, including coverage of relevant aspects of Web architecture. The remainder of the text is based around two main themes - the publication and consumption of Linked Data. Drawing on a practical Linked Data scenario, we provide guidance and best practices on: architectural approaches to publishing Linked Data; choosing URIs and vocabularies to identify and describe resources; deciding what data to return in a description of a resource on the Web; methods and frameworks for automated linking of data sets; and testing and debugging approaches for Linked Data deployments. We give an overview of existing Linked Data applications and then examine the architectures that are used to consume Linked Data from the Web, alongside existing tools and frameworks that enable these. Readers can expect to gain a rich technical understanding of Linked Data fundamentals, as the basis for application development, research or further study. Table of Contents: List of Figures / Introduction / Principles of Linked Data / The Web of Data / Linked Data Design Considerations / Recipes for Publishing Linked Data / Consuming Linked Data / Summary and Outlook
Linked Data Management

Linked Data Management

Author: Andreas Harth, Katja Hose, Ralf Schenkel
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466582413
Pages: 576
Year: 2016-04-19
Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Despite the publication of many papers since Tim Berners-Lee developed the Linked Data principles in 2006, the field lacks a comprehensive, unified overview of the state of the art. Suitable for both researchers and practitioners, this book provides a thorough, consolidated account of the new data publishing and data integration paradigm. While the book covers query processing extensively, the Linked Data abstraction furnishes more than a mechanism for collecting, integrating, and querying data from the open Web—the Linked Data technology stack also allows for controlled, sophisticated applications deployed in an enterprise environment.
Publishing and Using Cultural Heritage Linked Data on the Semantic Web

Publishing and Using Cultural Heritage Linked Data on the Semantic Web

Author: Eero Hyvonen
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1608459985
Pages: 159
Year: 2012-10-01
Cultural Heritage (CH) data is syntactically and semantically heterogeneous, multilingual, semantically rich, and highly interlinked. It is produced in a distributed, open fashion by museums, libraries, archives, and media organizations, as well as individual persons. Managing publication of such richness and variety of content on the Web, and at the same time supporting distributed, interoperable content creation processes, poses challenges where traditional publication approaches need to be re-thought. Application of the principles and technologies of Linked Data and the Semantic Web is a new, promising approach to address these problems. This development is leading to the creation of large national and international CH portals, such as Europeana, to large open data repositories, such as the Linked Open Data Cloud, and massive publications of linked library data in the U.S., Europe, and Asia. Cultural Heritage has become one of the most successful application domains of Linked Data and Semantic Web technologies. This book gives an overview on why, when, and how Linked (Open) Data and Semantic Web technologies can be employed in practice in publishing CH collections and other content on the Web. The text first motivates and presents a general semantic portal model and publishing framework as a solution approach to distributed semantic content creation, based on an ontology infrastructure. On the Semantic Web, such an infrastructure includes shared metadata models, ontologies, and logical reasoning, and is supported by shared ontology and other Web services alleviating the use of the new technology and linked data in legacy cataloging systems. The goal of all this is to provide layman users and researchers with new, more intelligent and usable Web applications that can be utilized by other Web applications, too, via well-defined Application Programming Interfaces (API). At the same time, it is possible to provide publishing organizations with more cost-efficient solutions for content creation and publication. This book is targeted to computer scientists, museum curators, librarians, archivists, and other CH professionals interested in Linked Data and CH applications on the Semantic Web. The text is focused on practice and applications, making it suitable to students, researchers, and practitioners developing Web services and applications of CH, as well as to CH managers willing to understand the technical issues and challenges involved in linked data publication. Table of Contents: Cultural Heritage on the Semantic Web / Portal Model for Collaborative CH Publishing / Requirements for Publishing Linked Data / Metadata Schemas / Domain Vocabularies and Ontologies / Logic Rules for Cultural Heritage / Cultural Content Creation / Semantic Services for Human and Machine Users / Conclusions
Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist

Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist

Author: Dean Allemang, James Hendler
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0123859662
Pages: 384
Year: 2011-07-05
Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist: Effective Modeling in RDFS and OWL, Second Edition, discusses the capabilities of Semantic Web modeling languages, such as RDFS (Resource Description Framework Schema) and OWL (Web Ontology Language). Organized into 16 chapters, the book provides examples to illustrate the use of Semantic Web technologies in solving common modeling problems. It uses the life and works of William Shakespeare to demonstrate some of the most basic capabilities of the Semantic Web. The book first provides an overview of the Semantic Web and aspects of the Web. It then discusses semantic modeling and how it can support the development from chaotic information gathering to one characterized by information sharing, cooperation, and collaboration. It also explains the use of RDF to implement the Semantic Web by allowing information to be distributed over the Web, along with the use of SPARQL to access RDF data. Moreover, the reader is introduced to components that make up a Semantic Web deployment and how they fit together, the concept of inferencing in the Semantic Web, and how RDFS differs from other schema languages. Finally, the book considers the use of SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System) to manage vocabularies by taking advantage of the inferencing structure of RDFS-Plus. This book is intended for the working ontologist who is trying to create a domain model on the Semantic Web. Updated with the latest developments and advances in Semantic Web technologies for organizing, querying, and processing information, including SPARQL, RDF and RDFS, OWL 2.0, and SKOS Detailed information on the ontologies used in today's key web applications, including ecommerce, social networking, data mining, using government data, and more Even more illustrative examples and case studies that demonstrate what semantic technologies are and how they work together to solve real-world problems
Linked Data for Libraries, Archives and Museums

Linked Data for Libraries, Archives and Museums

Author: Seth van Hooland, Ruben Verborgh
Publisher: Facet Publishing
ISBN: 1856049647
Pages: 224
Year: 2014-06-18
This highly practical handbook teaches you how to unlock the value of your existing metadata through cleaning, reconciliation, enrichment and linking and how to streamline the process of new metadata creation. Libraries, archives and museums are facing up to the challenge of providing access to fast growing collections whilst managing cuts to budgets. Key to this is the creation, linking and publishing of good quality metadata as Linked Data that will allow their collections to be discovered, accessed and disseminated in a sustainable manner. This highly practical handbook teaches you how to unlock the value of your existing metadata through cleaning, reconciliation, enrichment and linking and how to streamline the process of new metadata creation. Metadata experts Seth van Hooland and Ruben Verborgh introduce the key concepts of metadata standards and Linked Data and how they can be practically applied to existing metadata, giving readers the tools and understanding to achieve maximum results with limited resources. Readers will learn how to critically assess and use (semi-)automated methods of managing metadata through hands-on exercises within the book and on the accompanying website. Each chapter is built around a case study from institutions around the world, demonstrating how freely available tools are being successfully used in different metadata contexts. This handbook delivers the necessary conceptual and practical understanding to empower practitioners to make the right decisions when making their organisations resources accessible on the Web. Key topics include: - The value of metadata Metadata creation – architecture, data models and standards - Metadata cleaning - Metadata reconciliation - Metadata enrichment through Linked Data and named-entity recognition - Importing and exporting metadata - Ensuring a sustainable publishing model. Readership: This will be an invaluable guide for metadata practitioners and researchers within all cultural heritage contexts, from library cataloguers and archivists to museum curatorial staff. It will also be of interest to students and academics within information science and digital humanities fields. IT managers with responsibility for information systems, as well as strategy heads and budget holders, at cultural heritage organisations, will find this a valuable decision-making aid.
Social Machines

Social Machines

Author: James Hendler, Alice M. Mulvehill
Publisher: Apress
ISBN: 1484211561
Pages: 174
Year: 2016-09-20
Will your next doctor be a human being—or a machine? Will you have a choice? If you do, what should you know before making it?This book introduces the reader to the pitfalls and promises of artificial intelligence (AI) in its modern incarnation and the growing trend of systems to "reach off the Web" into the real world. The convergence of AI, social networking, and modern computing is creating an historic inflection point in the partnership between human beings and machines with potentially profound impacts on the future not only of computing but of our world and species.AI experts and researchers James Hendler—co-originator of the Semantic Web (Web 3.0)—and Alice Mulvehill—developer of AI-based operational systems for DARPA, the Air Force, and NASA—explore the social implications of AI systems in the context of a close examination of the technologies that make them possible. The authors critically evaluate the utopian claims and dystopian counterclaims of AI prognosticators. Social Machines: The Coming Collision of Artificial Intelligence, Social Networking, and Humanity is your richly illustrated field guide to the future of your machine-mediated relationships with other human beings and with increasingly intelligent machines. What Readers Will Learn What the concept of a social machine is and how the activities of non-programmers are contributing to machine intelligence How modern artificial intelligence technologies, such as Watson, are evolving and how they process knowledge from both carefully produced information (such as Wikipedia and journal articles) and from big data collections The fundamentals of neuromorphic computing, knowledge graph search, and linked data, as well as the basic technology concepts that underlie networking applications such as Facebook and Twitter How the change in attitudes towards cooperative work on the Web, especially in the younger demographic, is critical to the future of Web applications Who This Book Is ForGeneral readers and technically engaged developers, entrepreneurs, and technologists interested in the threats and promises of the accelerating convergence of artificial intelligence with social networks and mobile web technologies.
Linked Open Data -- Creating Knowledge Out of Interlinked Data

Linked Open Data -- Creating Knowledge Out of Interlinked Data

Author: Sören Auer, Volha Bryl, Sebastian Tramp
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319098462
Pages: 215
Year: 2014-07-31
Linked Open Data (LOD) is a pragmatic approach for realizing the Semantic Web vision of making the Web a global, distributed, semantics-based information system. This book presents an overview on the results of the research project “LOD2 -- Creating Knowledge out of Interlinked Data”. LOD2 is a large-scale integrating project co-funded by the European Commission within the FP7 Information and Communication Technologies Work Program. Commencing in September 2010, this 4-year project comprised leading Linked Open Data research groups, companies, and service providers from across 11 European countries and South Korea. The aim of this project was to advance the state-of-the-art in research and development in four key areas relevant for Linked Data, namely 1. RDF data management; 2. the extraction, creation, and enrichment of structured RDF data; 3. the interlinking and fusion of Linked Data from different sources and 4. the authoring, exploration and visualization of Linked Data.
Learning SPARQL

Learning SPARQL

Author: Bob DuCharme
Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."
ISBN: 1449371477
Pages: 386
Year: 2013-07-03
Gain hands-on experience with SPARQL, the RDF query language that’s bringing new possibilities to semantic web, linked data, and big data projects. This updated and expanded edition shows you how to use SPARQL 1.1 with a variety of tools to retrieve, manipulate, and federate data from the public web as well as from private sources. Author Bob DuCharme has you writing simple queries right away before providing background on how SPARQL fits into RDF technologies. Using short examples that you can run yourself with open source software, you’ll learn how to update, add to, and delete data in RDF datasets. Get the big picture on RDF, linked data, and the semantic web Use SPARQL to find bad data and create new data from existing data Use datatype metadata and functions in your queries Learn techniques and tools to help your queries run more efficiently Use RDF Schemas and OWL ontologies to extend the power of your queries Discover the roles that SPARQL can play in your applications
Linked Data Tools

Linked Data Tools

Author: Karen Coyle
Publisher: American Library Association
ISBN: 0838958591
Pages: 46
Year: 2012
"This issue of Libary Technology Reports presents an overview of current developments in Semantic Web technology that provide the foundations for making library data accessible on the Semantic Web. Author Karne Coyle introduces basic Semantic Web concepts and then describes the metadata activites and developer tools that are being used to create Semantic Web applications. She points readers to projects within and beyond the library community that are a source of metadata elements and controlled vocabularies. for software developers, she describes available software tools in the nascent world of linked data the Semantic Web."--Publisher's website.
Mining Heterogeneous Information Networks

Mining Heterogeneous Information Networks

Author: Yizhou Sun, Jiawei Han
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1608458814
Pages: 126
Year: 2012-08-15
Real-world physical and abstract data objects are interconnected, forming gigantic, interconnected networks. By structuring these data objects and interactions between these objects into multiple types, such networks become semi-structured heterogeneous information networks. Most real-world applications that handle big data, including interconnected social media and social networks, scientific, engineering, or medical information systems, online e-commerce systems, and most database systems, can be structured into heterogeneous information networks. Therefore, effective analysis of large-scale heterogeneous information networks poses an interesting but critical challenge. In this book, we investigate the principles and methodologies of mining heterogeneous information networks. Departing from many existing network models that view interconnected data as homogeneous graphs or networks, our semi-structured heterogeneous information network model leverages the rich semantics of typed nodes and links in a network and uncovers surprisingly rich knowledge from the network. This semi-structured heterogeneous network modeling leads to a series of new principles and powerful methodologies for mining interconnected data, including: (1) rank-based clustering and classification; (2) meta-path-based similarity search and mining; (3) relation strength-aware mining, and many other potential developments. This book introduces this new research frontier and points out some promising research directions. Table of Contents: Introduction / Ranking-Based Clustering / Classification of Heterogeneous Information Networks / Meta-Path-Based Similarity Search / Meta-Path-Based Relationship Prediction / Relation Strength-Aware Clustering with Incomplete Attributes / User-Guided Clustering via Meta-Path Selection / Research Frontiers
Linking Government Data

Linking Government Data

Author: David Wood
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461417678
Pages: 232
Year: 2011-11-12
Linking Government Data provides a practical approach to addressing common information management issues. The approaches taken are based on international standards of the World Wide Web Consortium. Linking Government Data gives both the costs and benefits of using linked data techniques with government data; describes how agencies can fulfill their missions with less cost; and recommends how intra-agency culture must change to allow public presentation of linked data. Case studies from early adopters of linked data approaches in international governments are presented in the last section of the book. Linking Government Data is designed as a professional book for those working in Semantic Web research and standards development, and for early adopters of Semantic Web standards and techniques. Enterprise architects, project managers and application developers in commercial, not-for-profit and government organizations concerned with scalability, flexibility and robustness of information management systems will also find this book valuable. Students focused on computer science and business management will also find value in this book.
The Semantic Web: Semantics and Big Data

The Semantic Web: Semantics and Big Data

Author: Philipp Cimiano, Oscar Corcho, Valentina Presutti, Laura Hollink, Sebastian Rudolph
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642382886
Pages: 728
Year: 2013-05-20
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th Extended Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2013, held in Montpellier, France, in May 2013. The 42 revised full papers presented together with three invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 162 submissions. They are organized in tracks on ontologies; linked open data; semantic data management; mobile Web, sensors and semantic streams; reasoning; natural language processing and information retrieval; machine learning; social Web and Web science; cognition and semantic Web; and in-use and industrial tracks. The book also includes 17 PhD papers presented at the PhD Symposium.
The Librarian's Guide to Academic Research in the Cloud

The Librarian's Guide to Academic Research in the Cloud

Author: Steven Ovadia
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1780633815
Pages: 214
Year: 2013-09-30
The cloud can be a powerful tool for conducting and managing research. The Librarian’s Guide to Academic Research in the Cloud is a practical guide to using cloud services from a librarian’s point of view. As well as discussing how to use various cloud-based services, the title considers the various privacy and data portability issues associated with web-based services. This book helps readers make the most of cloud computing, including how to fold mobile devices into the cloud-based research management equation. The book is divided into several chapters, each considering a key aspect of academic research in the cloud, including: defining the cloud; capturing information; capturing and managing scholarly information; storing files; staying organized, communicating; and sharing. The book ends by considering the future of the cloud, examining what readers can expect from cloud services in the next few years, and how research might be changed as a result. Covers a wide range of services, discussing their strengths and weaknesses and showing readers how to use them more effectively Offers a research perspective for readers who don’t know how to connect cloud services with academic research Contextualises cloud-based services, explaining not just what they do and how they work, but how they can best be used
Linked Open Data: the Essentials

Linked Open Data: the Essentials

Author: Florian Bauer, Martin Kaltenböck
Publisher:
ISBN: 3902796057
Pages: 57
Year: 2012