Malaria remains an important cause of illness and death in children and adults in countries in which it is endemic. Malaria control requires an integrated approach including prevention (primarily vector control) and prompt treatment with effective antimalarial agents. Malaria case management consisting of prompt diagnosis and effective treatment remains a vital component of malaria control and elimination strategies. Since the publication of the first edition of the Guidelines for the treatment of malaria in 2006 and the second edition in 2010 all countries in which P. falciparum malaria is endemic have progressively updated their treatment policy from use of ineffective monotherapy to the currently recommended artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT). This has contributed substantially to current reductions in global morbidity and mortality from malaria. Unfortunately resistance to artemisinins has arisen recently in P. falciparum in South-East Asia which threatens these gains. This third edition of the WHO Guidelines for the treatment of malaria contains updated recommendations based on a firmer evidence base for most antimalarial drugs and in addition include recommendation on the use of drugs to prevent malaria in groups at high risk. The Guidelines provide a framework for designing specific detailed national treatment protocols taking into account local patterns of resistance to antimalarial drugs and health service capacity. It provides recommendations on treatment of uncomplicated and severe malaria in all age groups all endemic areas in special populations and several complex situations. In addition on the use of antimalarial drugs as preventive therapy in healthy people living in malaria-endemic areas who are high risk in order to reduce morbidity and mortality from malaria. The Guidelines are designed primarily for policy-makers in ministries of health who formulate country-specific treatment guidelines. Other groups that may find them useful include health professionals and public health and policy specialists that are partners in health or malaria control and the pharmaceutical industry. The treatment recommendations in the main document are brief; for those who wish to study the evidence base in more detail a series of annexes is provided with references to the appropriate sections of the main document.
An Epidemic of Absence
Author: Moises Velasquez-Manoff
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
A controversial, revisionist approach to autoimmune and allergic disorders considers the perspective that the human immune system has been disabled by twentieth-century hygiene and medical practices.
Despite significant progress in the global fight against malaria, this parasitic infection is still responsible for nearly 300 million clinical cases and more than half a million deaths each year, predominantly in African children less than 5 years of age. The infection starts when mosquitoes transmit small numbers of parasites into the skin. From here, the parasites travel with the bloodstream to the liver where they undergo an initial round of replication and maturation to the next developmental stage that infects red blood cells. A vaccine capable of blocking the clinically silent liver phase of the Plasmodium life cycle would prevent the subsequent symptomatic phase of this tropical disease, including its frequently fatal manifestations such as severe anemia, acute lung injury, and cerebral malaria. Parasitologists, immunologists, and vaccinologists have come to appreciate the complexity of the adaptive immune response against the liver stages of this deadly parasite. Lymphocytes play a central role in the elimination of Plasmodium infected hepatocytes, both in humans and animal models, but our understanding of the exact cellular interactions and molecular effector mechanisms that lead to parasite killing within the complex hepatic microenvironment of an immune host is still rudimentary. Nevertheless, recent collaborative efforts have led to promising vaccine approaches based on liver stages that have conferred sterile immunity in humans – the University of Oxford's Ad prime / MVA boost vaccine, the Naval Medical Research Center’s DNA prime / Ad boost vaccine, Sanaria Inc.'s radiation-attenuated whole sporozoite vaccine, and Radboud University Medical Centre’s and Sanaria's derived chemoprophylaxis with sporozoites vaccines. The aim of this Research Topic is to bring together researchers with expertise in malariology, immunology, hepatology, antigen discovery and vaccine development to provide a better understanding of the basic biology of Plasmodium in the liver and the host’s innate and adaptive immune responses. Understanding the conditions required to generate complete protection in a vaccinated individual will bring us closer to our ultimate goal, namely to develop a safe, scalable, and affordable malaria vaccine capable of inducing sustained high-level protective immunity in the large proportion of the world’s population constantly at risk of malaria.
Author: Mira Grant
Genetically engineered tapeworms that protect most of the human populace from illness, boost everyone's immune system, and even secrete designer drugs begin to change and want out of human bodies they occupy.
An estimated 2-3 billion people in the less developed countries suffer from infections, often multiple, caused by a variety of parasitic organisms. These infections are frequently debilitat ing rather than fatal, and the toll in human misery is fearsome. To this may be added the prevalence of similar diseases in do mestic animals, which diminish supplies of animal pro tein. As the world population increases, the already enormous problem also continues to grow. The resources of the less developed nations are inadequate for solving the problem, and in the de veloped countries a lack of interest in tropical diseases has meant low priority for research. Two recent methodological advances now raise the real possibility of a systematic and effec tive attack upon these diseases - hybridoma and recombinant nucleic acid technologies. The combination ofthese with the still necessary clinical, parasitological and imrnunological in formation permits a logical, planned and realistic approach to diagnosis and treatment. The central aim ofthese modem tech niques is to define antigens with regard to diagnosis, protection and pathology. In the case of some diseases, work has already commenced along these lines; in the case of others, knowledge lags a long way behind. This volume represents a summary of current knowledge about a wide, representative spectrum of tropical diseases. There is considerable common ground between the different infections as regards objectives and the methods for achieving them.
Author: William Henry Welch, William Sydney Thayer
The phenomena involved in infections of man and domestic animals with metazoan or protozoan parasites present formidable practical problems as well as a theoretical challenge to immunologists, molecular biologists, and evolu tionary biologists. With respect to the public health and economic problems, malaria, for example, remains a major health problem with approximately 200 million people being infected yearly and, on the basis of World Health Organiza tion estimates, more than 1 million children die each year of malaria infections (Chapter 4). This volume addresses state-of-the-art immunologic approaches to the development of vaccines for parasitic diseases (Chapter 9) and analyses of studies bearing on the antigenic characterization of protozoan and metazoan parasites (Chapters 4, 5, and 7), on investigations of the role of precise mecha nisms underlying natural resistance or non permissiveness of the host to parasitic infections (Chapters 1, 2, and 12), on induced mechanisms including the genera tion of parasite-specific T-cell lines and clones (Chapter 6), and on the generation of monoclonal antibodies (Chapters 4 and 5) to parasite antigens of distinct de velopmental stages. Great progress has been made in characterizing parasite antigens capable of inducing a protective response in the vaccinated host; further progress in this area strongly depends on biochemistry and molecular biology with the long-term goal of synthesizing such antigens chemically or producing them by means of recombinant DNA technology (Chapter 4).
During the past few decades we have witnessed an era of remarkable growth in the field of molecular biology. In 1950 very little was known of the chemical constitution of biological systems, the manner in which information was transmitted from one organism to another, or the extent to which the chemical basis of life is unified. The picture today is dramatically different. We have an almost bewildering variety of information detailing many different aspects oflife at the molecular level. These great advances have brought with them some breath-taking insights into the molecular mechanisms used by nature for replicating, distributing and modifying biological information. We have learned a great deal about the chemical and physical nature of the macro molecular nucleic acids and proteins, and the manner in which carbohydrates, lipids and smaller molecules work together to provide the molecular setting of living systems. It might be said that these few decades have replaced a near vacuum of informa tion with a very large surplus. It is in the context of this flood of information that this series of monographs on molecular biology has been organized. The idea is to bring together in one place, between the covers of one book, a concise assessment of the state of the subject in a well-defined field. This will enable the reader to get a sense of historical perspective what is known about the field today - and a description of the frontiers of research where our knowledge is increasing steadily.
As the amount of information in biology expands dramatically, it becomes increasingly important for textbooks to distill the vast amount of scientific knowledge into concise principles and enduring concepts.As with previous editions, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Sixth Edition accomplishes this goal with clear writing and beautiful illustrations. The Sixth Edition has been extensively revised and updated with the latest research in the field of cell biology, and it provides an exceptional framework for teaching and learning. The entire illustration program has been greatly enhanced.Protein structures better illustrate structure–function relationships, icons are simpler and more consistent within and between chapters, and micrographs have been refreshed and updated with newer, clearer, or better images. As a new feature, each chapter now contains intriguing openended questions highlighting “What We Don’t Know,” introducing students to challenging areas of future research. Updated end-of-chapter problems reflect new research discussed in the text, and these problems have been expanded to all chapters by adding questions on developmental biology, tissues and stem cells, pathogens, and the immune system.
Host Manipulation by Parasites
Author: David P. Hughes, Jacques Brodeur, Frédéric Thomas
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Parasites that manipulate the behaviour of their hosts represent striking examples of adaptation by natural selection. This innovative text provides an up-to-date, authoritative, and challenging review of host manipulation by parasites that assesses the current state of developments in the field and lays out a framework for future research.
The use of ultrasound guidance to perform diagnostic and therapeutic injections is growing at a rapid rate, as is the evidence to support its use. Even with the increased popularity of ultrasound, there remains a lack of formal training or a standard reference book. Atlas of Ultrasound Guided Musculoskeletal Injections fills this void in the literature and will be useful to physiatrists, orthopedists, rheumatologists, pain medicine and sports medicine specialists alike. Broken down by anatomic structure and heavily illustrated, this book is both comprehensive and instructive. The Editors and their contributors break down the basics (both the fundamentals of ultrasound to needle visibility and the role of injections) and explore ultrasound-guided injection for structures in the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand, hip and groin, knee, ankle and foot, and spine. Using a clear, heavily illustrated format, this book describes the relevant clinical scenarios and indications for injection, the evidence to support ultrasound use, relevant local anatomy, injection methods, and pearls and safety considerations. It will be a valuable reference for trainees and experienced clinicians alike, for experienced sonographers or those just starting out.