Sociologie des agencements marchands
Author: Michel Callon, Madeleine Akrich, Vololona Rabeharisoa, Catherine Grandclément, Cécile Méadel, Alexandre Mallard, Bruno Latour, Fabian Muniesa, Antoine Hennion, Sophie Dubuisson-Quellier
Publisher: Presses des Mines via OpenEdition
Qu'est-ce que le marché ? Depuis une quinzaine d'années, Michel Callon et les chercheurs du centre de sociologie de l'innovation (CSI) de l'école des mines se penchent sur cette question si peu discutée par les recherches en économie ; ils l'interrogent dans le prolongement des travaux qu'ils menaient autour de la sociologie de la traduction, dite encore théorie de l'acteur-réseau (ou Actor-Network Theory). Ces nouveaux travaux se caractérisent par l'attention accordée à l'ensemble des acteurs concernés par la formation des marchés, au rôle central des dispositifs techniques et des savoirs scientifiques, à l'importance des pratiques d'expérimentation et au processus de qualification des biens et des services. L'ouvrage présente une sélection de textes importants qui ont servi de jalons à cette réflexion collective et qui sont toujours d'actualité. Il se clôt par un texte original et fondamental de Michel Callon qui explore un nouveau concept, l'agencement marchand ; il propose de le substituer à celui de marché-interface pour rendre compte de l'ensemble des activités et processus désormais au cœur de l'action marchande.
Cet ouvrage offre un décryptage sociologique de la consommation en l’envisageant avant tout comme une pratique sociale. Véritable synthèse des approches théoriques classiques et des recherches contemporaines, il apporte un éclairage sur les récentes évolutions des pratiques d’achat (commerce en ligne, consommation collaborative, etc.). Il vise notamment à identifier : • les processus sociaux à l’oeuvre dans les pratiques d’achat ; • l’influence des facteurs sociaux et économiques sur les décisions des individus ; • l’impact de l’action des industriels, des distributeurs, des professionnels du marketing et de la publicité ; • et, plus largement, les évolutions des conduites de consommation dans un univers commercial omniprésent où règnent à la fois des possibilités de choix informés et des dispositifs d’encadrement marchand renouvelés.
This book is a sociological account of the historical trajectory of feed-in tariffs (FITs) as an instrument for the promotion of renewable energy in Europe. Chapters analyse the emergence and transformations of feed-in tariffs as part of the policy arsenal developed to encourage the creation of markets for RES-E in Europe. The authors explore evolving conceptions of renewable energy policy at the intersection between environmental objectives, technological change and the ambition to liberalise the internal electricity market. They draw conclusions on the relationships between markets and policy-making as it is instituted in the European Union, and on the interplay between the implementation of a European vision on energy and national politics. Distinctive in both its approach and its methods the books aim is not to discuss the design of feed-in tariffs and their evolution, nor is it to assess their efficiency or fairness. Instead, the authors seek to understand what makes feed-in tariffs what they are, and how this has changed over time.
Author: Olivier Labussière, Alain Nadaï
This book elucidates what it means to transition to alternative sources of energy and discusses the potential for this energy transition to be a more democratic process. The book dynamically describes a recent sociotechnical study of a number of energy transitions occurring in several countries - France, Germany and Tunisia, and involving different energy technologies - including solar, on/off-shore wind, smart grids, biomass, low-energy buildings, and carbon capture and storage. Drawing on a pragmatist tradition of social inquiry, the authors examine the consequences of energy transition processes for the actors and entities that are affected by them, as well as the spaces for political participation they offer. This critical inquiry is organised according to foundational categories that have defined the energy transition - ‘renewable’ energy resources, markets, economic instruments, technological demonstration, spatiality (‘scale’) and temporality (‘horizon(s)’). Using a set of select case studies, this book systematically investigates the role these categories play in the current developments in energy transitions.
Author: Madeleine Akrich, Yannick Barthe, Fabian Muniesa
Publisher: Presses des MINES
MICHEL CALLON a marqué les sciences humaines et sociales par sa production académique, par ses activités d'animateur de la communauté scientifique et par son rôle de médiateur entre la recherche et le monde de la politique, de l'administration et de l'entreprise. Il a multiplié les espaces d'entente et de confrontation, en se déplaçant aussi bien sur le terrain de la sociologie que sur celui des politiques de recherche et d'innovation, de l'anthropologie économique, de la scientométrie, de la science politique ou de l'anthropologie de la médecine.
The ways in which the Internet is managed and controlled - often labeled as Internet Governance - are usually considered as standing on four main pillars : Technology, Market Laws, State Regulation and Uses. Nevertheless, its specific features, the consequences of the plurality of norms it involves and of the decision-making processes it entails are rarely addressed in a comprehensive analysis. This book explores the Internet's functioning both as a practical-intellectuel experience and a political challenge. By means of several case studies, it proposes a substantial and reflexive treatment of multileveled, formal or informal Internet Politics. The book's overall endeavor is to outline an understanding of what is - or may be - a "digital common good". The authors are members of a European academic team gathered by the Vox Internet research program's meetings. They adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, embedding technological innovation in the field of social sciences (communication studies, sociology, law, political science and philosophy).
The Provoked Economy
Author: Fabian Muniesa
Do things such as performance indicators, valuation formulas, consumer tests, stock prices or financial contracts represent an external reality? Or do they rather constitute, in a performative fashion, what they refer to? The Provoked Economy tackles this question from a pragmatist angle, considering economic reality as a ceaselessly provoked reality. It takes the reader through a series of diverse empirical sites – from public administrations to stock exchanges, from investment banks to marketing facilities and business schools – in order to explore what can be seen from such a demanding standpoint. It demonstrates that descriptions of economic objects do actually produce economic objects and that the simulacrum of an economic act is indeed a form of realization. It also shows that provoking economic reality means facing practical tests in which what ought to be economic or not is subject to elaboration and controversy. This book opens paths for empirical investigation in the social sciences, but also for the philosophical renewal of the critique of economic reality. It will be useful for students and scholars in social theory, sociology, anthropology, philosophy and economics.
Materiality and Managerial Techniques
Author: Nathalie Mitev, Anna Morgan-Thomas, Philippe Lorino, Francois-Xavier de Vaujany, Yesh Nama
This edited book examines the relationship between the materiality of artefacts and managerial techniques, combining the recent scholarly interest on socio-materiality with a focus on management. Exploring managerial techniques, the social and material tools used by actors to guide or facilitate collective activities, topics include their socio-materiality, performative dimension, role in managerial control, relationship to organisational space and relationship to organisational legitimacy. This volume particularly explores the valuation and legitimation practices or processes involving managerial techniques, their modalities, specificities and involvement in collective activity within organisations. The overall aim of the chapters is to explore in different ways and instances the way in which material artefacts are able to inscribe and enforce managerial action which affects daily work practices.
This book focuses on home as a site of care, with new technologies and for elderly population. It pulls together findings from research in the social sciences and common knowledge of the actors themselves, especially stakeholders involved in the design, delivery and receipt of 'care in place'. It offers a wide-ranging discussion of key issues raised in both the academic and grey literature in relation to new technologies and responsibilities for health care at home. Then, it identifies critical issues arising from the development of these new care technologies in relation to their design and implementation. It will provide an essential resource for the EU in helping to avoid expensive and inappropriate development and healthcare systems that do not meet the needs of users and citizens.
The technologies, markets, and administrations of today's knowledge society are in crisis. We face recurring disasters in every domain: climate change, energy shortages, economic meltdown. The system is broken, despite everything the technocrats claim to know about science, technology, and economics. These problems are exacerbated by the fact that today powerful technologies have unforeseen effects that disrupt everyday life; the new masters of technology are not restrained by the lessons of experience, and accelerate change to the point where society is in constant turmoil. In Between Reason and Experience, leading philosopher of technology Andrew Feenberg makes a case for the interdependence of reason--scientific knowledge, technical rationality--and experience. Feenberg examines different aspects of the tangled relationship between technology and society from the perspective of critical theory of technology, an approach he has pioneered over the past twenty years. Feenberg points to two examples of democratic interventions into technology: the Internet (in which user initiative has influenced design) and the environmental movement (in which science coordinates with protest and policy). He examines methodological applications of critical theory of technology to the case of the French Minitel computing network and to the relationship between national culture and technology in Japan. Finally, Feenberg considers the philosophies of technology of Heidegger, Habermas, Latour, and Marcuse. The gradual extension of democracy into the technical sphere, Feenberg argues, is one of the great political transformations of our time.
This book develops a fresh perspective on everyday forms of engagement, one that foregrounds the role of objects, technologies and settings in democracy. Examining a range of devices, from smart meters to eco-homes, the book sets out new concepts and methods for analyzing the relations between participation, innovation and the environment.
In 1963, Howard S. Becker gave a lecture about deviance, challenging the then-conventional definition that deviance was inherently criminal and abnormal and arguing that instead, deviance was better understood as a function of labeling. At the end of his lecture, a distinguished colleague standing at the back of the room, puffing a cigar, looked at Becker quizzically and asked, “What about murder? Isn’t that really deviant?” It sounded like Becker had been backed into a corner. Becker, however, wasn’t defeated! Reasonable people, he countered, differ over whether certain killings are murder or justified homicide, and these differences vary depending on what kinds of people did the killing. In What About Mozart? What About Murder?, Becker uses this example, along with many others, to demonstrate the different ways to study society, one that uses carefully investigated, specific cases and another that relies on speculation and on what he calls “killer questions,” aimed at taking down an opponent by citing invented cases. Becker draws on a lifetime of sociological research and wisdom to show, in helpful detail, how to use a variety of kinds of cases to build sociological knowledge. With his trademark conversational flair and informal, personal perspective Becker provides a guide that researchers can use to produce general sociological knowledge through case studies. He champions research that has enough data to go beyond guesswork and urges researchers to avoid what he calls “skeleton cases,” which use fictional stories that pose as scientific evidence. Using his long career as a backdrop, Becker delivers a winning book that will surely change the way scholars in many fields approach their research.
Moments of Valuation
Author: Ariane Berthoin Antal, Michael Hutter, David Stark
Publisher: OUP Oxford
The outcome of innovation processes are determined by complex, historically grown valuation practices. In this book, a wide range of innovations are taken into consideration, from small inventions like entertainment novelties to large societal changes through new technologies. The chapters observe the particular local or distributed sites in which their episodes of innovation take place, and they identify the initial dissonance among those judging a newly proposed alternative. The emphasis of the inquiry, however, is on the practices of valuation that are at work when something succeeds in being "new". The authors represent a wide variety of sub-disciplines and national backgrounds in the social sciences. They share an interest in social valuation and a pragmatist approach. The differences between their empirical evidence reflect the wide variety of appearances that valuation takes in contemporary society. They are anthropologists, economic or cultural sociologists, organization researchers, historians or political scientists. A number of chapters deals with aesthetic valuation, as in the tasting of a new vintage, or in the socio-technical process that shaped successful synthesizer sounds. Other chapters discuss the judgment processes in organizations, like architect offices or consultancy firms, and processes of evaluation and valorization in larger fields of practice, like accounting or mathematics. The studies are both of interest in their various professional fields, and contribute to a more general understanding of the social and cultural conditions under which innovations fail and succeed.
Infrastructures in Practice shows how infrastructures and daily life shape each other. Power grids, roads and broadband make modern lifestyles possible – at the same time, their design and day-to-day operation depends on what people do at home and at work. This volume investigates the entanglement of supply and demand. It explains how standards and 'normal' ways of living have changed over time and how infrastructures have changed with them. Studies of grid expansion and disruption, heating systems, the internet, urban planning and office standards, smart meters and demand management reveal this dynamic interdependence. This is the first book to examine the interdependence between infrastructures and the practices of daily life. It offers an analysis of how new technologies, lifestyles and standards become normalised and fall out of use. It brings together diverse disciplines – history, sociology, science studies – to develop social theories and accounts of how infrastructures and practices constitute each other at different scales and over time. It shows how networks and demands are steered and shaped, and how social and political visions are woven into infrastructures, past, present and future. Original, wide-ranging and theoretically informed, this book puts the many practices of daily life back into the study of infrastructures. The result is a fresh understanding of how resource-intensive forms of consumption and energy demand have come about and what is needed to move towards a more sustainable lower carbon future.
Author: Mitchel Abolafia
Publisher: Harvard University Press
"Making Markets," an ethnography of Wall Street culture, offers a comprehensive picture of how the market and its denizens work. Markets appear here as socially constructed institutions in which the behavior of traders is suspended in a web of customs, norms, and structures of control.