Wege der Wissenschaft
Author: Alan F. Chalmers
Chalmers kritische Reflektion über wissenschaftstheoretische Schulen ist zu einem Standardwerk universitärer Lehre avanciert. Seine Popularität verdankt das Buch der Tatsache, daß es Chalmers gelingt, die komplexe Thematik in eine auch für Laien verständliche Form zu bringen und mit zahlreichen Beispielen zu illustrieren. In dieser völlig überarbeiteten und erneut um einige Kapitel erweiterten Auflage bleibt Chalmers dieser Tradition treu. Er bietet nicht nur einen hervorragenden Überblick über klassische Ansätze der Wissenschaftstheorie, den Induktivismus, den Falsifikationismus, den kritischen Rationalismus sowie den sogenannten "Anarchistischen Ansatz" und stellt die Theorien von K. Popper, I. Lakatos, Th. Kuhn, P. Feyerabend vor, sondern geht auch auf neuere wissenschaftstheoretische Entwicklungen ein. Sein besonderes Augenmerk gilt dabei dem Bayes'schen Ansatz, der Bedeutung des Experiments, den naturwissenschaftlichen Gesetzen und der Debatte zwischen "Realisten" und "Anti-Realisten".
Author: Paul Lorenzen
Publisher: Univ of Massachusetts Press
Drawing on the results of his own scholarly research as well as that of others the author offers, for the first time, a comprehensive and documented history of theories of the atom from Democritus to the twentieth century. This is not history for its own sake. By critically reflecting on the various versions of atomic theories of the past the author is able to grapple with the question of what sets scientific knowledge apart from other kinds of knowledge, philosophical knowledge in particular. He thereby engages historically with issues concerning the nature and status of scientific knowledge that were dealt with in a more abstract way in his What Is This Thing Called Science?, a book that has been a standard text in philosophy of science for three decades and which is available in nineteen languages. Speculations about the fundamental structure of matter from Democritus to the seventeenth-century mechanical philosophers and beyond are construed as categorically distinct from atomic theories amenable to experimental investigation and support and as contributing little to the latter from a historical point of view. The thesis will provoke historians and philosophers of science alike and will require a revision of a range of standard views in the history of science and philosophy. The book is key reading for students and scholars in History and Philosophy of Science and will be instructive for and provide a challenge to philosophers, historians and scientists more generally.
This monograph investigates the development of hydrostatics as a science. In the process, it sheds new light on the nature of science and its origins in the Scientific Revolution. Readers will come to see that the history of hydrostatics reveals subtle ways in which the science of the seventeenth century differed from previous periods. The key, the author argues, is the new insights into the concept of pressure that emerged during the Scientific Revolution. This came about due to contributions from such figures as Simon Stevin, Pascal, Boyle and Newton. The author compares their work with Galileo and Descartes, neither of whom grasped the need for a new conception of pressure. As a result, their contributions to hydrostatics were unproductive. The story ends with Newton insofar as his version of hydrostatics set the subject on its modern course. He articulated a technical notion of pressure that was up to the task. Newton compared the mathematical way in hydrostatics and the experimental way, and sided with the former. The subtleties that lie behind Newton's position throws light on the way in which developments in seventeenth-century science simultaneously involved mathematization and experimentation. This book serves as an example of the degree of conceptual change that new sciences often require. It will be of interest to those involved in the study of history and philosophy of science. It will also appeal to physicists as well as interested general readers.
Natural Sciences and the Social Sciences contains a series of explorations of the different ways in which the social sciences have interacted with the natural sciences. Usually, such interactions are considered to go only `one way': from the natural to the social sciences. But there are several important essays in this volume which show how developments in the social sciences have affected the natural sciences - even the `hard' science of physics. Other essays deal with various types of interaction since the Scientific Revolution. In his general introductory chapter, Cohen sets some general themes concerning analogies and homologies and the use of metaphors, drawing specific examples from the use of concepts of physics by marginalist economists and of developments in the life sciences by organismic sociologists. The remaining chapters, which explore the different ways in which the social sciences and the natural sciences have actually interacted, are written by leaders in the field of history of science, drawn from a wide range of countries and disciplines. The book will be of great interest to all historians of science, philosophers interested in questions of methodology, economists and sociologists, and all social scientists concerned with the history of their subject and its foundations.
A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.
Die Beiträge des Tagungsbandes knüpfen an traditionelle Fragestellungen der Wissenschaftstheorie und an wissenschaftstheoretische Herausforderungen an, die mit aktuellen Forschungsthemen verbunden sind. Im Mittelpunkt stehen die Angemessenheit von Verfahren zur Bildung und Bewertung von Theorien, die Übertragbarkeit naturwissenschaftlicher Methoden auf die Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Ontologien, Informationsmodellierung und Wissensmanagement.
Die Physikerin und Philosophin Sabine Müller entwirft in diesem Buch das Programm für eine neue Wissenschaftstheorie, in dem sie zentrale Prinzipien des Kritischen Rationalismus und der Analytischen Philosophie revidiert. Auch das cartesianische Wissenschaftsparadigma unterzieht sie einer gründlichen Kritik: Dessen reduktionistisches, deterministisches und mechanistisches Naturbild ist naturwissenschaftlich überholt und ethisch nicht haltbar. Die Autorin argumentiert dagegen für ein Naturbild, das am Bild des Organismus statt des Mechanismus orientiert ist. Ein solches Naturbild findet sich von der Renaissance über die Romantik bis zu Teilen der modernen Na-turwissenschaft neben dem szientistischen Mainstream. Die von Sabine Müller entworfene neue Wissenschaftstheorie basiert auf dem Naturbild der sog. Romantischen Wissenschaft und auf einer naturphilosophisch begründeten Ethik, die die Autorin hier entwirft. Die Arbeit liefert ein praktisch anwendbares Ergebnis: eine Methodologie zur Bewertung wis-senschaftlicher Begriffe, deren Leistungsfähigkeit schließlich am Beispiel des Intelligenz-Begriffs der Psychologie demonstriert wird.
The Philosophy of Quantum Physics
Author: Cord Friebe, Meinard Kuhlmann, Holger Lyre, Paul M. Näger, Oliver Passon, Manfred Stöckler
This book provides a thorough and up-to-date introduction to the philosophy of quantum physics. Although quantum theory is renowned for its spectacular empirical successes, controversial discussion about how it should be understood continue to rage today. In this volume, the authors provide an overview of its numerous philosophical challenges: Do quantum objects violate the principle of causality? Are particles of the same type indistinguishable and therefore not individual entities? Do quantum objects retain their identity over time? How does a compound quantum system relate to its parts? These questions are answered here within different interpretational approaches to quantum theory. Finally, moving to Quantum Field Theory, we find that the problem of non-locality is exacerbated. Philosophy of quantum physics is aimed at philosophers with an interest in physics, while also serving to familiarize physicists with many of the essential philosophical questions of their subject.
Religion and Philosophy
Author: Martin Warner
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
In this lively collection ten philosophers tackle the notoriously elusive issues raised by religious discourse in a series of linked debates. The debates focus on reason and faith; the logic of mysticism; the meaning of the word "God"; language, Biblical interpretation and worship; and religion and ethics. Through contemporary philosophical analysis it is possible to shed new light on the status and language of religion, and in many ways the contributors to Religion and Philosophy break new ground in this perennially controversial field.
Philosophy of Science
Author: Marc Lange
Philosophy of Science: An Anthology assembles some of the finest papers in the philosophy of science since 1945, showcasing enduring classics alongside important and innovative recent work. Introductions by the editor highlight connections between selections, and contextualize the articles Nine sections address topics at the heart of philosophy of science, including realism and the character of scientific theories, scientific explanations and laws of nature, singular casusation, and the metaphysical implications of modern physics Provides an authoritative and accessible overview of the field